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Published: December 18, 2023

Why it’s a bad idea to use an ultrasonic tooth cleaner (or other tools) at home

Author: Dr Gemma Wheeler, BDS (45 Comments)
Quick summary
  • DIY dental scalers can damage teeth and gums. They do not work as effectively as ads suggest and cannot replace visits to the dentist.
Why it's a bad idea to use an ultrasonic tooth cleaner (or other tools) at home 1

DIY ultrasonic cleaning has gained prominence recently, and an increased number of products are being advertised for it.

But that doesn't mean it's a good idea.

It is unnecessary for plaque removal, and you can't use it to remove tartar instead of going to the dentist.

An ultrasonic tooth cleaner that you can use at home might sound like a good idea. You might be hoping this will save you a trip to the hygienist. But alas, it's too good to be true.

Having tested a few of these products, in this article I give my opinion and advice as a dentist.

What is an ultrasonic tooth cleaner? 

I am talking about ultrasonic tooth cleaners that are marketed for you to use at home. These are different to the scalers used for professional cleaning.

These are products you can buy online and in shops.

These products make claims that they remove plaque, tartar and stains by using vibrations. 

They typically have a metal tip, although some also come with alternative tips such as a rubber based cleaner. They are powered devices, using removable or rechargeable batteries.

DIY ultrasonic tooth cleaners can be called a few different things. Names I have come across include:

  • Ultrasonic Tooth Cleaner
  • Sonic Home Dental System
  • Electric Plaque Removal Tool
  • Electric Interdental Brush
  • Electric Dental Calculus Remover 
Ultrasonic cleaner being used on model of teeth

Why it's a bad idea to use products like these at home

We purchased and tested two different types of at home dental scalers.

After trialling two different products, I can better explain the problems with at home calculus removers.

The potential problems are divided into damage they can do in the mouth and false manufacturers' claims.

Ultrasonic cleaners will damage your teeth and gums

DIY dental scalers can damage the gums. The sharp metal tip will traumatise the gum if used incorrectly. High vibration rate will also irritate the gum disease and cause damage, especially because there is no water flow.

Ultrasonic scalers can dent and scratch the enamel surface if used incorrectly. This is also true for professional scalers, which is why, as dentists, we are trained in how to use them safely.

The at-home ultrasonic cleaners can damage existing dental work. This includes white composite fillings and metal fillings. They could also scratch crowns and veneers too. Scratching these surfaces will make them more prone to staining and plaque buildup.

Using a scaler which has high vibrations without water can cause the tooth to overheat. This will damage the nerve of the tooth in the pulp. Ultimately, this can be irreversible and result in the tooth dying off. In the models I tested, they did not vibrate fast enough to produce heat.

Such instruments bought in a shop and used at home are not sterile. You could, unknowingly, bring harmful bacteria into your mouth and underneath your gums which could cause an infection.

You cannot clean them effectively at home. When these go in the mouth, they pick up the bacteria that are on your teeth and under your gums. Cleaning products you have at home will not full clean the surfaces of the scaling tips.

Why it's a bad idea to use an ultrasonic tooth cleaner (or other tools) at home 2

False promises from manufacturers of diy scalers

At home ultrasonic scalers don’t really work.

It is very difficult to remove stains from teeth using these products. I have only very light staining and found this a challenge to remove, even when using the correct movements I know from dental training. It is unlikely you will get the effect you desire at home. 

I am not convinced they will remove tartar/calculus as promised either.

The manufacturers are claiming these are safe, even for children. The JML manual says that children from age 8 can use the product, as well as “persons with reduced physical, sensory or mental capabilities”. I would disagree. Most children don’t have the right dexterity to be able to brush effectively, let alone use a sharp metal instrument in their mouth!

By purchasing these products you will be wasting your money. The extra plastics and materials used place an unnecessary burden on the environment for an item that doesn’t work.

Products I tested

I ordered a couple of ultrasonic cleaners in so I could put them to the test. As you will find out from my brief reviews below, the results are disappointing.

JML DentaPic Sonic

DentaPic Sonic 3000 From JML in its packaging
Dental tools and plaque scraper next to model of teeth

The first was the JML DentaPic Sonic (picture above). I unboxed it, read the manual and set it up to go. 

The handle has an on/off button and a light.

My first thought was about how sharp the metal tip is. I would strongly advise against anyone except adults with good mobility putting this anywhere near their teeth or gums! 

I tried it on my fingernail first, and was surprised by the power output. Next I tried it on my teeth. I have a small amount of staining between my lower central incisors so thought I should start there. 

Does the DentaPic Sonic remove stains? Yes. But it took a long time and it didn’t even manage to completely remove a small stain. The sharp tip also actually scratched the enamel surface a little bit and damaged the white filling material in place for my Invisalign treatment. 

I also tried the scaler on a mock up of calculus. I applied PolyFilla (a multipurpose hole filler for walls) to a denture and allowed it to dry. I then used the scaler on the denture. It did cause the top layer to flake off, but otherwise it just scratched into the white filler material. 

Will it remove tartar? Unlikely. On using it with the metal tip, I can feel that the vibrations are not enough to remove calculus. The metal tip was sharp on the gums, and I really would advise you to avoid using this unless you know what you are doing. 

Even if you do have the skills to not damage the gums, the scaler doesn’t actually do anything. 

I also tried the rubber tip. This was useless. The vibrations that come from the hand tool aren’t transmitted down the silicone (due to it being a flexible material). So this also doesn’t remove any stains or tartar. It’s not fine enough to clean between the teeth to replace other interdental cleaning methods either. 

Overall, a waste of money!

"Dental Calculus Remover" (from Amazon)

Dental Calculus Remover In Box
Dental Calculus Remover Box Open Showing Contents

The second product was from Amazon — “the second generation of Dental calculus remover” (pictured above). This rechargeable option came in a white box. 

There are two different metal head attachments. The scaling tips actually look very similar to the professional scaler tips. The handle has three different speeds and an in-built light.

I read the instructions, whilst waiting for the handle to charge. Reassuringly, this product advises against children using it.  

Again, I first tried it on a fingernail to get a first impression. This one seems to have a higher rate of vibrations, in my opinion. This time I tried it on a bit of staining between the upper left canine and lateral incisor. 

It does definitely remove stains. It takes a while though. Again, when I tried it on the composite buttons for my retainers, there was some damage.

When I used this scaler on the Polyfilla’d denture, it was less effective than the JML scaler. Like the JML scaler, it flaked off the very fine dusty layer of filler. It also scratched into the filler layer. But it definitely did not remove the filler in the way I would expect a scaler to.

Will it remove tartar? Maybe. But probably not.

Similar products to those i have tested

Although I haven’t tested the following products, the specifications are very similar to those I have tested and therefore they are unlikely to be effective.

But regardless of their effectiveness, the same advice applies about them having the potential to damage your teeth and gums, and therefore I don't recommend using them:

  • Smirk ultrasonic tooth cleaner
  • Sonoshine
  • Smile therapy
  • Teeth saviour
  • Dentrie
  • Ivory Oral
  • Sanipik
  • OnlySmiles
  • MyOralGift
  • Densine

If you come across any products similar to these, please let us know in the comments section below.

Why it's a bad idea to use an ultrasonic tooth cleaner (or other tools) at home 3

How do these differ to ultrasonic cleaning you receive at the dentist? 

Professional ultrasonic scalers are used by dentists and dental hygienists. They remove tartar and staining from above and below the gum line. They can be powered via the dental chair or as a separate unit.

These at home scalers do not move as fast as professional scaling tips. Professional ultrasonic scalers vibrate at a speed that is faster than you can hear (ultra sonic). This is somewhere between 20,000 and 45,000 times per second. There are also profesional sonic scalers that vibrate 3000 to 8000 times per second. The tips I tested were less than this.

These at DIY scrapers do not have a water supply. All professional scalers have a water supply. The purpose of this is to help cool down the metal tip. The water flow also helps the cleaning mechanism underneath the gum level.

It is possible for professional ultrasonic scalers to damage the enamel surface of the teeth and dental work. This is also true for the DIY tartar removers.

In fact, a lot of the problems I have listed for these at home scalers are also true for professional cleaning. The at home scalers move fast enough to cause damage, but not enough to be effective!

The main difference is that dental professionals know how to handle the tools to avoid causing damage. They can also identify any damage caused and remedy it, something which is not possible at home.

Why it's a bad idea to use an ultrasonic tooth cleaner (or other tools) at home 4

What to do if you are considering one of these products

Simple answer: please don’t buy an ultrasonic tooth cleaner to use at home.

There is no need to purchase one of these DIY scrapers to remove plaque. Plaque does not have a strong bond to your teeth and can be removed with toothbrushing and interdental cleaning.

You aren’t able to use anything to remove tartar without going to the dentist. The bond between the tartar and the tooth surface is too strong.

Instead of buying one of these products, invest your time and effort into getting into a good oral hygiene routine.

Preventing plaque build up will improve your oral health. Removing plaque helps prevent tartar and staining.

Small changes in your diet can also reduce staining. For example, avoiding foods that stain your teeth, or rinsing after having staining drinks such as coffee.

Why it's a bad idea to use an ultrasonic tooth cleaner (or other tools) at home 5

Electric toothbrushes are more effective at removing plaque. A good electric toothbrush would be a better investment than one of these scrapers.

Make sure you are cleaning in between the teeth. Interdental cleaning is important for plaque removal and gum health.

Book an appointment with a dental professional for calculus and stain removal. They may do a scale and polish.

Author: Dr Gemma Wheeler, BDS

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A
AJM
March 3, 2024

"If used incorrectly" and "unlikely to work" are the key phrases in this apparently professional opinion. Stress on "opinion". To translate - "There's no evidence from my limited experience of using these devices that they will do any damage if you follow the instructions" and "I haven't tried them all, so cannot honestly say whether they work or not, but my opinion as someone with a vested interest in people continuing to pay me money is that I'd rather you paid me money instead of paying someone else". Make up your own mind. Spend your money how you like, follow the instructions and see how you go. And remember, that a similar article written about kitchen knives by a butcher would advise you get your butcher products already prepared by your butcher, in case you cut yourself. Knives, if used incorrectly, can be dangerous.

M
Matt
February 3, 2024

I find this article very biased. The way you say "invest your time and effort" but forgot to mention money. I have to disagree with your claims that it will not clean tartar, I got one of those of Amazon and I'm absolutely delighted with it and would recommend to anyone who can't afford to get their teeth cleaned every 6 months or is simply afraid of going to get it done. It's very effective and it does no damage to your teeth or gums if used the right way. Also sterilising it at home is possible and there's many methods you can use to make sure it's sterile from boiling water, mouthwash and best of all, 3% hydrogen peroxide.

M
Mart
September 4, 2023

Hmmm. Guess I’ll steer clear, although I must say, I’m sure there wouldn’t be as many of these products if people could actually get to see a dentist for a reasonable price. No NHS dentists in our area, and private treatment is off the charts.

P
Peter
August 20, 2023

Interesting, I was thinking of trying one of these with the thought of cleaning small non dental metal work, but from the videos I can immediately hear that these seem to be nothing but a high speed motor with an off centre revolving weight to wobble the probe, the fact it can be heard suggests it is sonic and not ultrasonic, certainly not something that will produce true cavitation bubbles to boil the dirt off even if it had water, glad I have watched your video, thank you. I will save up for an electronic piezo model!

T
Three
June 4, 2023

Very informative article - Thanks!

K
Karina
April 28, 2023

Jag köpte en ”Dental calculus remover” från Lily Stockholm och vågar inte använda den. Provade den igår men det kändes mycket obehagligt!

L
Leslie
April 11, 2023

Hi Gemma, a pop up ad on YouTube for UDentalPro making several claims for being safe (antibacterial silicone) speedy (30 seconds) and effective for removing interdental food debris, descaling and avoiding plaque build-up. https://udentalpro.com/ It's a new website, only 2 months old, and has not had enough traffic to determine if it's a scam or a legitimate business. Also the 2 years of research and 10 months of development appears convincing for such a great looking product. I'd appreciate your opinion and feedback.

DG
Dr. Gemma Wheeler, BDS (Hons) - In-house dentist
April 13, 2023

Hi Leslie, We haven't done any hands on testing with this product so my opinions are based on looking at the website. Looking at the website, this is a mouthpiece toothbrush which appears similar to others we have tested. Jon has written some really helpful advice about what to look out for with these brushes on this page. We don't recommend mouthpiece brushes as the technology simply isn't good enough yet. This particular website makes plenty of claims with no scientific research to back it up so I would be cautious about how true these claims are. Another red flag is the generic statement "Recommended by Orthodontist" with no qualified individual being named. I can't find any information about who owns the company or where they are based. This generally isn't a good sign, as a legitimate company will have information such as VAT registration number, and company address. The only thing I could find is that the return address for faulty products is in the US and is simply a generic warehouse - again no links to a company of any sort. Hope this helps you. Gemma

M
Mark
October 22, 2022

I think you are right to be concerned. However I also believe for light use at lower settings and used carefully as per dental hygienist, it has a place in bathroom cupboard. Children, physically and mentally challenged people are best to stick to brushing. Kids dont usually have much plaque. I didnt. My main concern is the lack of water. I nearly burnt my fingers holding the tip. I couldnt understand how it was so hot. It seems thats what ultrasonic does to the tip. One reason for lots of water. I think that can be partly compensated for by short application, short sessions as much water in mouth as possible and start off doing small bits and check that everything is ok in morning! I was concerned to see signs of blood where gums are touched but I noticed that that was also happening in professional video. Keep the mouth wet but if you can somehow get a flow of water even better. Dont let tip get too hot anyway. Personally I sleep on my front. I have my mother to thank for that (60's baby) and overnight I get calculus which doesnt come off with an electric toothbrush. I am trialing the Liebsen from Amazon and so far I am impressed at what happens to tartar. I doubt I will return it. My advice is.. if you need to, start slow on lowest settings. You will get results on calculus immediately. Little bit at a time and plenty of brushing and interdental stuff. Not sure about stain removal, I dont really have any. I wont be runnint tip of probe accross tooth either. My pennies worth. Pleased I saw your article.

SR
Sue Ridgway
September 29, 2022

I'm so pleased I came across your article on the reasons why not to buy a tooth scaler, makes perfect sense what you have said. Many thanks for your honesty. I will carry on with my regular routine of electric toothbrush, dental floss, T pees and small headed toothbrush.

N
Neil
September 12, 2022

Do you have an opinion on these? Made from silicon so no scratching/scraping involved. I suspect it's in the too good to be true category but would be interested if you know anything about it.

M
Mark
October 22, 2022

seems the ultrasonic doesnt transmit properly through silicon. Maybe just a very small tip might work. Seems they dont work like metal ones anyway, unsurprisingly.

JL
Jon Love - Chief tester
September 12, 2022

Hi Neil. Yes, we do. The short answer is most of them are worth avoiding. There are some instances whereby they might be appropriate, notably those with disabilities at this stage. We class them as mouthpiece toothbrushes, which we explain in detail in this article on them. If you have any questions, please let us know.

FR
Francis Romero
August 24, 2022

So the answer from someone with a vested interest in persuading you to keep going to the dentist because she is a dentist, private practice dentist, is to stop buying this gear and keep going to them instead. It costs ridiculous money to have private dental work done as I've been doing recently and I know without a doubt I'm helping to keep my dentist in the lap of luxury they're used to. The money charged for a simple tooth extraction of a tooth that's already wobbly and just needs a wriggle and a gentle tug, 2 minutes work if that is £150. That's obscene! Pardon me for being sceptical about your motives for writing this advice, but I personally don't think it's anything to do with anything apart from your vested interest. This advice would be much more believable if it came as a review from ordinary people unconnected to dentistry in any way. Ordinary people would soon tell you if it works, was it easy to do, have there been any complications/issues, is it worth the money. Telling people to STOP, DO NOT USE, IT IS DANGEROUS, WILL CAUSE ISSUES, just smacks of 'Vested Interest Syndrome'. What you're offering isn't good advice, I'll find out for myself.

JL
Jon Love - Chief tester
August 25, 2022

You are entitled to your opinion Francis and welcome to try the tool yourself. We are not selling any dental services or directing you to any specific practitioner to get a cleaning, so we have nothing to gain directly. Yes, the wider industry might gain on the back of this, but we are not compensated in any way. We are genuinely trying to help people avoid wasting money on tools that don't function as advertised. We would be interested to hear if you get the results you wish.

J
John
November 9, 2023

I had black stains on my teeth at the back due to smoking. I purchased the TrueSmile 1 and it was all removed on the lower setting withing 5-10 minutes. I do agree with NOT buying these though you need to very careful not to cause more damage.

C
Colin
August 11, 2022

Yes they could cause harm if used incorrectly as you keep repeating, but then so can a kitchen knife or a can opener, anything could be said to do that, thousands of people die every year driving cars, but should we use a taxi instead then ? because that is exactly what you are saying ! I can appreciate you are losing trade as a result of these cleaners, but to use a headline like that is pure scaremongering to put people off, everything can be dangerous if not used correctly, so please, less of the dramatics and accept we now have the ability to clean our own teeth at home, the answer is to reduce your prices so there would be no need to buy our own !

N
Nick
August 6, 2022

Unfortunately, I'm hard pressed to find any other views online from dentists or the dentistry industry that share your view or offer an opinion on these products. Whilst you say they can cause damage, having negative read reviews on Amazon, I haven't seen any reviews to match your claims. All the negative reviews regarding these product consist of them either not working or not working as advertised. I'm also sceptical on how much damage products like this can cause if they're only powered by USB or batteries. I'm also sceptical that anyone working within dentistry could give an impartial review given you have financial interest in them not succeeding. The products you also reviewed are also not the best on the market. The JML is a very cheap product. I don't think these products are replacements for the hygienist. However, reviews online indicate that many people are happy with the cosmetic enhancements they make to help cleaning up front teeth. Given that hygienists charge anything between £50 - £80 per visit (dependent on the process) I think they would be good to use to help maintain the cosmetic condition of front teeth, alongside an annual visit to the hygienist to help keep things in order.

KG
Keith Gustafson BDS
May 25, 2022

Excellent professional report Gemma, well done. Clear information on the limited use and effectiveness of these units.

ST
Soren Tabnitz
May 22, 2022

Thank you for such a detailed article. Very very helpful!

A
Alex
May 17, 2022

Unable to find a NHS denist who has space for me. No income so impossible to use any other dentist.

S
Sam
May 13, 2022

Hi Dr Gemma, I recently purchased an inexpensive ultrasonic cleaner, and have just tested it on myself. I had a visible build-up of tartar on my lower, front incisors, as I have not been able to visit a dentist as much as I'd like over the last 3 years (due to moving to different countries). Whilst I cannot argue against your point about the possibility of damaging enamel or gums if used incorrectly (and regular dental visits are certainly no substitute for DIY denistry) - I can say that I was impressed at how effective the tool was at removing the tartar build up on my teeth. Although it took about 10 minutes to figure out the best angle - and it's a little awkward doing it yourself, after I got the hang of it, I was able to remove all the visible tartar. It was even coming off in big flakes. I won't share the link to the cleaner I bought (I don't want this to appear like spam - although I'd be happy to if you request) - but it was a non-branded tool and cost less than £35 from Amazon. So - I'm sure there are risks if you don't know what you're doing, but in my experience - they can and do remove tartar (at least - mine did). cheers

T
Tony
July 12, 2022

Hi Sam, I have been looking at purchasing one of these cleaners but have been forced to reconsider after reading Dr. Gemma's article. Could you let me know which one you bought please to help my decision making. Thank you

P
Pete
May 27, 2022

Hi Sam. Please could you advise which one you went for? Whilst I appreciate the advice give here I still wish yo try as have difficultly getting to a dentist.

JL
Jon Love - Chief tester
May 13, 2022

Thanks, Sam for your honest feedback. Pleased you had success and understood the possible risks.

B
Billy
April 15, 2022

Protecting the dentist industry when some people can't get to a dentist.. I guess you don't read the review online on these products no didn't think so..

Sh
Sue harrison
April 9, 2022

I was looking at buying one of these products but having read your comments decided not to Thankyou

LM
Linda Mckeever
March 22, 2022

Was tempted to by sonoshine tonight. So glad I came across your reviews and advice, will not be buying any of these gimmicks. Thank you😁

T
Tony
March 18, 2022

Very helpful, well-explained and informative review. Many thanks Gemma - you’ve even made me reconsider my practice of USO’s dental scraper to deal with occasional tartar buildups around the gums of my front teeth.

B
Becki
February 28, 2022

That's very sound advice, however a trip to the dentist is beyond most peoples affordability nowadays. Waiting lists for NHS are months plus plus long and the cost of private dental care beyond the means of someone on an average British income. As someone in need of so much work doing I dare not even go for a check up. When one knows they will need treatment way beyond my means its a case of waiting for an emergency to arise. That's the reality for most people.

AH
Andrew Hall
February 21, 2022

Interesting article. I bought one of these items last year and honestly it broke within a minute as it was so flimsy. You can forget about getting a refund the company wasn’t interested despite advertising a 90 day trial period. I had paid through PayPal so knew I would get my money back, actually not true either another misdemeanour PayPal weren’t interested. So not only did the product not work I didn’t get the refund I expected. Stay clear it is a scam it doesn’t work and you won’t get your money back.

W
Will
February 10, 2022

Is SonoShine also a bad product too? I just saw one advertised, then I saw your article, so I will avoid the purchase. Seeing a dentist is no easy these days.

Z
Zac
July 7, 2022

Where did you come across their ads? Thanks

JL
Jon Love - Chief tester
February 11, 2022

Unfortunately Will SonoShine isn't a good product either. Totally understand about seeing the dentist but using SonoShine is going to be ineffective.

H
Hussain
February 5, 2022

Naturally DENSTISTS will write an article like this to protect their Monay making Scams off peoples teetrh

B
Billy
April 15, 2022

Exactly

R
Rashawna
January 24, 2022

On Monday January 24, 2022, I was going to purchase a Sono Shine device from watching 5 minutes of the commercial on YouTube. I clicked the link and was transferred to the site. I filled out the form and clicked the button to process the purchase but, it did not go through. I searched for the Sono Shine device in a separate window on my phone and then saw Electric Teeth’s pop up in the result list. I read the article and was thankful to God that the purchase did not go through and read the article. Leave it to the professionals when it comes to my teeth. I wanted to purchase the scaler for convenience on traveling to the dentist and save money. However, after reading the well informed essay I realized that I would have done more harm than good. I didn’t realize the purpose of running water was to cool the tip of the machine and to avoid damage to the tooth(tooth death) and gum.

F
Fi
January 24, 2022

Thank you. You have saved me from wasting my money - and my teeth x

OA
Oladele Adeyemi
January 9, 2022

Hello Dr. Gemma To be honest, you have provided a logical ground of informed purchase decision for the general public in regards to these products. I must agree that, probably like many people; I was very confused when I saw the sensationalised paid campaigned for them in the media, Many thanks for your candid and fearless professional assessments of these DIY Ultrasonic Tooth Cleaners. I should be visiting my dentist very soon to have a professional treatment. Best Wishes & Regards Oladele Adeyemi (LLM)

DG
Dr. Gemma Wheeler, BDS (Hons)
January 16, 2022

Hi Oladele, Thank you for the positive feedback. Best of luck with your professional cleaning. Gemma

KW
Kate Wells
December 16, 2021

Very clear advice. There are too many products like this that are too readily available and the makers are actually making false claims. I trust Dr Wheeler's professional opinion on this particular product, especially as she is clearly giving an unbiased, expert opinion as opposed to trying to flog a product. The people who sell these dodgy gimmicks online are the modern equivalent of the old quacks who sold snake oil to the gullible.

DB
D Beaumont
November 29, 2021

Is it possible for you to emphasis the conflict of interest that you are a dentist and you make money from people using dentists and not when they use home treatments. That would make this article more honest and transparent for the readers benefit.

JL
Jon Love - Chief tester
November 29, 2021

Thank you for the comment. We understand the point you are making and acknowledge the possible conflict of interest. I do believe this possible conflict is minimal. Electric Teeth is an independent organisation, that wishes to help people make more informed decisions about their oral health. Electric Teeth employ the services of dentists like Gemma Wheeler, who authored this post to ensure the content we are providing is factually/medically correct. As a dental professional she has tested these products and assessed them from a medical and consumer point of view to come to the conclusions documented here. Whilst arguably dental professionals will benefit from people undertaking cleanings with them, we are not promoting, selling, or offering any specific services of dental professionals/dental practices. We do not benefit, financially or otherwise from recommending against these products. Quite simply we want to ensure that you and others are getting what they expect from such products and are not risking their oral health. Of course, you and others are free to take away from this article what you wish and if you believe there is a conflict of interest then I wish not to contest this, simply make clear our stance. Should you wish to know more about us or our ethics policy, please refer to our about page that explains our position at length.

t
tricia
September 29, 2021

Excellent series of articles and hinformation. Most helpful. Thank you.

LH
Liam Herbert
July 21, 2021

Very useful review!

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