What is toothpaste made of? Are there harmful ingredients in toothpaste?
Such simple questions, yet the answer is a long one. Many off-the-shelf toothpastes contain a plethora of ingredients.
But it’s a good idea to understand exactly what you are putting into your mouth on a daily basis and why. There are good cases for and against some of the most common ingredients.
If you want to understand the chemicals in your toothpaste, have a read through the sections about:
- Active and inactive ingredients.
- What types of ingredients are added, and the different functions.
- The A-Z of toothpaste ingredients.
If you’re interested in toothpaste with minimal or natural ingredients, see our post on the best natural toothpastes.
And visit our toothpaste hub page to find all of our toothpaste content.
Active vs Inactive Ingredients
First of all, the easiest way to split the ingredients found in toothpaste is active ingredients and inactive ingredients.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines active ingredient as
“any component that is intended to furnish pharmacological activity or other direct effect in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease”.
This means that any ingredient that is intended to function as a health benefit is an active ingredient. In the case of toothpaste, this includes fluoride, for the prevention of tooth decay.
The FDA defines inactive ingredients as
“any component other than an active ingredient”
In other words, inactive ingredients are all the chemicals in toothpaste that hold it together.
Active and inactive ingredients are both relevant in toothpastes which boast health benefits, and which the FDA would then consider to be an over-the-counter drug.
Toothpaste can also be considered as a cosmetic, in particular whitening toothpastes, or those which do not contain fluoride. It is possible for a toothpaste to be both an over-the-counter drug and a cosmetic.
In the case of toothpastes graded only as cosmetics, ingredients do not actually need to be approved by the FDA before they go on the market. Compare this to products deemed to be drugs, which must have FDA approval. If a cosmetic is not being approved before being sold, there is potential for harmful ingredients to be added to something you are using every single day.
This difference is important as it means there are different levels of regulation for your toothpaste depending on whether it is a drug or a cosmetic. This is something worth considering when looking at the ingredients list and when picking your toothpaste.
What type of ingredients are added to toothpaste?
So the toothpaste – be that a paste, a gel, or even a tablet form – contains many ingredients. You may be wondering if there are any harmful or toxic ingredients. To understand the ingredients better, and help you make you mind up about what you want in a toothpaste, let’s go through the functions of toothpaste ingredients.
Abrasives are used to cause a small amount of abrasion.
In toothpaste, these small particles act like an exfoliant to target the biofilm (plaque) on teeth. They help to physically remove the bacteria and small amounts of food debris on your teeth. Abrasive particles nowadays are mostly made from:
- Aluminium hydroxide
- Calcium carbonate
- Hydrated silica
- Sodium bicarbonate
The relative dentine abrasivity (RDA) is used to measure how abrasive toothpaste is. Toothpaste with a higher abrasive index has been linked to a greater incidence of abrasive wear on teeth. However hard bristles and incorrect brushing technique, as well as high levels of acid in modern diets, is a greater cause of tooth wear.
Whilst too much abrasion can cause problems, without an abrasive you won’t achieve a comprehensive clean.
Tartar control and whitening toothpastes are known to be slightly more abrasive. If you are a smoker, then using smoker’s abrasive toothpaste will be more effective at removing staining compared to other brands, but also can cause more damage. Some of the most abrasive toothpastes on the market include Colgate Tartar Control and Crest Multicare Whitening.
Whilst abrasive toothpastes cause damage if used long term, they do have a role in removing staining at home if used occasionally.
Tooth abrasion can be avoided by using low-abrasive toothpastes.
The table below shows the abrasiveness of some popular toothpastes. Anything below 70-80 RDA on the index is considered low-abrasive.
|04 Toothbrush with plain water||91 Aquafresh Sensitive|
|07 Plain baking soda||93 Tom’s of Maine|
|15 Weleda Salt Toothpaste||94 Rembrandt Plus|
|30 Elmex Sensitive Plus||95 Oxyfresh with Fluoride|
|30 Weleda Plant Tooth Gel||95 Crest Regular|
|35 Arm & Hammer Dental Care||97 Oxyfresh Powder|
|40 Weleda Children’s Tooth Gel||101 Natural White|
|42 Arm & Hammer Mentadent Advance Whitening||103 Mentadent|
|44 Squiggle Enamel Saver||103 Arm & Hammer Sensation|
|45 Weleda Calendula Toothpaste||104 Sensodyne Extra Whitening|
|45 Weleda Pink Toothpaste with Ratanhia||106 Colgate Platinum|
|45 Oxyfresh||106 Arm & Hammer Advance White Extreme Whitening|
|48 Arm & Hammer Dental Care Sensitive||107 Crest Sensitivity Protection|
|49 Tom’s of Maine Sensitive||110 Colgate Herbal|
|52 Arm & Hammer Peroxicare Regular||~80 Amway Glister|
|53 Rembrandt Original||113 Aquafresh Whitening|
|53 Closys||117 Arm & Hammer Advance White Gel|
|54 Arm & Hammer Dental Care PM Bold Mint||117 Arm & Hammer Sensation Tartar Control|
|57 Tom’s of Maine Childrens||120 Close Up with Baking Soda|
|62 Supersmile||124 Colgate Whitening|
|63 Rembrandt Mint||130 Crest Extra Whitening|
|68 Colgate Regular||133 Ultra Brite|
|70 Arm & Hammer Advance White Sensitive||139 Colgate Total Clean Mint|
|70 Colgate 2-in-1 Fresh Mint||144 Crest Multicare Whitening|
|78 Biotene||145 Ultra Brite Advanced Whitening Formula|
|102 Sensodyne Repair and Protect||150 Pepsodent|
|80 AIM||165 Colgate Tartar Control|
|80 Close Up||168 Arm & Hammer Dental Care PM Fresh Mint|
|81 Colgate Pro-Relief (Pro-Argin)||176 Nature’s Gate Paste|
|82 Under the Gum||200 Colgate 2-in-1TartarControl/Whitening|
|83 Colgate Sensitive Max Strength||200 FDA recommended upper limit|
|87 Nature’s Gate||250 ADA recommended upper limit|
Detergents creating the foaming action normally associated with toothpaste (and other cleaning products, such as shampoo). Foaming helps to spread the toothpaste, so that the active ingredients can get into hard to reach places. Foaming also helps loosen and lift debris in the mouth, such as small food particles between the teeth.
The most commonly used detergent is sodium lauryl sulfate.
Buffering agents help keep the pH of a toothpaste constant. This prevents the toothpaste becoming too acidic or alkaline.
Keeping the pH at the right level is important to help other ingredients, such as fluoride, work as well as they possibly can. Buffering agents include:
- Aluminum hydroxide
- Sodium hydroxide.
Flavouring and colouring agents
To help make toothpaste more appealing to look at, and use, day after day, flavours and colouring agents are added.
Toothpastes should not contain sugar, as sugar causes decay, but instead they will contain sweeteners. Sweeteners provide a pleasant taste whilst not causing any harm. In fact, some sweeteners provide the added benefit of actually helping to protect the teeth and gums!
Some ingredients may be sweeteners but also play another role in a toothpaste. The sweetening effect might not even be the most important job of that ingredient! Sweeteners include sodium saccharin, sorbitol, and xylitol.
The most common flavour of toothpaste is mint, but other flavours include cinnamon and fruit.
Artificial colours can be added to toothpaste to improve the appearance of the toothpaste – to make it appear white, red, or blue for example.
Humectants in toothpaste help keep the water in the toothpaste, and so prevent it from drying out. Humectants help keep a smooth consistency to your toothpaste, even after it has been opened.
Some humectants also act as sweeteners in toothpaste, even if this isn’t their main purpose.
Humectants in toothpaste include:
- Propylene glycol
Preservatives in toothpaste prevent nasty bacteria and fungus from growing on your toothpaste after it has been opened. Sodium benzoate and parabens are the most common preservatives used in toothpaste.
Remineralizing and other therapeutic agents
If the main reason to use toothpaste is to avoid decay, then the remineralizing agents really are the most important ingredient in toothpaste.
Remineralizing agents re harden tooth enamel softened in the decay process. The most widely known is fluoride. Other options include calcium phosphates, either stand alone or in addition to fluoride.
Using a toothpaste without fluoride will mean that you do not get the protective remineralization effect of regular toothpaste. This may not be a concern if you are of very low risk of dental decay or tooth wear, but you should discuss this with your dentist.
Some toothpastes use an alternative to fluoride to help the teeth remineralize, for example Boka toothpaste which uses a type of calcium phosphate.
Therapeutic agents in a toothpaste are the ingredients that have specific functions such as controlling tartar or improving gum disease. This may also include ingredients which block tubules to help reduce sensitivity.
Water is the ingredient that makes toothpaste a paste or gel, rather than a powder. It dissolves the other ingredients.
A-Z of ingredients
Alcohol can be added to toothpastes as a preservative, and to help enhance flavours of the product. This is not alcohol in the traditional drink sense, and so products containing alcohol may still be labelled as alcohol free.
Alcohol in toothpaste may be referred to as alcohol, SD alcohol, denatured 38B, SD alcohol 38-B, or SD alcohol 38B. Alcohol may also be present as benzyl alcohol – also referred to as A-toluenol, Benzenmethanol, benzylic alcohol, phenylcarbinol, phenylmethanol or phenulmethyl alcohol.
Alcohol is a broad term and is not always the same as alcohol which can be drunk as a beverage – ethanol – but rather is a name for a group of ingredients with a common “functional group” or structure.
A product can be labelled as “alcohol free” even if it contains these ingredients. The FDA explains:
“the term “alcohol,” used by itself, refers to ethyl alcohol. Cosmetic products, including those labeled “alcohol free,” may contain other alcohols, such as cetyl, stearyl, cetearyl, or lanolin alcohol.”
The alcohol can be sourced as a natural ingredient or can be manufactured.
According to the EWG Specially denatured (SD) alcohol is a mixture of ethanol with a denaturing agent.
There is some association between alcohol and dry mouth. Other problems associated with ethanol (cancer, developmental toxicity, and allergies) are related to excessive oral ingestion, however these potential risks are significantly less in the use of toothpaste.
Aluminum hydroxide is multifunctional. Its main functions are as a buffering agent, preventing toothpaste becoming too acidic. It is also used as a colourant due to its naturally white colour.
Aluminium hydroxide has been FDA-approved for use in medical devices and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. It is also an ingredient in antacid medications.
There has been speculation that aluminum or aluminum compounds could play a role in Alzheimer’s disease, breast cancer, and other health problems, as outlined by the EWG. Overall, scientific research has failed to find a cause and effect relationship between Aluminum compounds and these health conditions. It is also worth noting that very little aluminum is absorbed via oral routes.
Aqua is simply another name for water. Aqua is the name provided in accordance with the International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients, which helps manufacturers labelling products around the world. Water acts as a solvent, to hold the ingredients of the toothpaste.
Arginine is a therapeutic ingredient, and is used to treat sensitivity by blocking the exposed dentin tubules (where the nerves are exposed). Blocking these tubules and the exposed nerves prevents irritation of the nerve and so reduces tooth sensitivity.
I have written about some good sensitive toothpaste choices here.
Arginine may also be added with zinc to some toothpastes to help deliver zinc as an active ingredient.
Aspartame is a sweetener, used to improve the taste of toothpastes. Aspartame does not cause dental decay despite its sweetening effects.
The FDA has approved the use of aspartame as a general purpose sweetener. It is much sweeter than sugar, so low amounts can be used for flavouring.
It has been subject to many scientific studies, especially with regards to concerns on its ability to cause cancer.
However, the American Cancer Society explains:
“Aspartame hasn’t been linked conclusively to any specific health problems, other than for people with phenylketonuria (PKU).”
People suffering from PKU have difficulty breaking down phenylalanine, a component of aspartame, and are therefore advised to control their intake of phenylalanine, including in the form of aspartame.
Calcium carbonate is added to toothpastes as an abrasive, to help remove plaque when brushing, and aid polishing of tooth surfaces.
Calcium carbonate is widely used in cosmetics such as foundation, as a colourant in candy, mints and chewing gum. It is generally recognised as safe (GRAS) by the FDA and is also approved for use in OTC medicines, such as antacid.
Calcium carbonate can be obtained from natural sources such as chalk, limestone, but can also be manufactured synthetically.
Calcium peroxide is a bleaching agent, which could lighten the overall colour of teeth if it in a high enough concentration.
Calcium phosphates may be added to toothpaste to prevent and repair damage to the tooth surface. It is a beneficial remineralising ingredient, but is not as common or as well known as fluoride. It is thought that adding calcium phosphates to a toothpaste, alongside fluoride, improves the rehardening of the tooth structure which has been damaged by early decay or tooth wear.
Calcium phosphates include:
- tricalcium phosphate (TCP)
- amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)
- Hydroxyapatite (HAP)
TCP is not found in nature, but can be produced. TCP has been investigated and found to be a good remineralising agent, but at present is only available in a small number of toothpastes.
ACP can be found in a very small number of toothpastes, where the ingredient enhanced remineralisation by fluoride.
HAP is found naturally in the body – in fact enamel is 97% HAP! According to this research “HAP is as effective as Chlorhexidine (CHX) in plaque reduction and as effective as Fluoride (NaF) in remineralizing initial enamel lesions”. A 2014 review of the literature goes so far as to say that nano-hydroxyapatite is actually more effective than fluoride at healing initial carious lesions (cavities).
Carrageenan is used in toothpastes as a thickener.
It is GRAS by the FDA, and is used in chewing gums as well as toothpastes. It has been linked to intestinal problems such as inflammation and bloating, in studies on animals.
However a 2018 review explains that there is insufficient evidence against safety of the ingredient.
Carrageenan is a jelly like material obtained from red seaweed (marine algae).
Cellulose is a thickener, used to moderate the consistency of toothpaste.
Charcoal is an abrasive that can be added to toothpaste to help to remove stains from teeth. It is a relatively new ingredient in the market of commercial toothpastes.
According to the US National Library of Medicine, activated charcoal is used to trap poisons and chemicals by absorbing them into the charcoal. It has not been assessed by the FDA, and no dental products containing charcoal have received the ADA Seal of Acceptance, yet.
Historically, charcoal was previously used to brush teeth before the invention of toothpaste as we think of it today. It has become more popular since 2017, but there is still only limited evidence over its usefulness and safety in dental products.
Some studies report on the abrasive nature of charcoal in toothpaste and oral products, and its usefulness in removing stains, but this could cause irreversible stripping of the outermost surface of the teeth.
Charcoal is made by burning natural materials such as wood, peat, or even coconut shells. The charcoal produced from this is then treated with very hot air to make it more porous.
Toothpastes containing charcoal have the ability to stain lab work, including crowns and veneers, and should be used with caution if you have these.
Chlorhexidine, or chlorhexidine gluconate, is an active ingredient which can be added to toothpastes and mouthwashes. Chlorhexidine is antio-microbial, meaning it can kill bacteria and fungi in the mouth.
Some theories for the addition of coconut oil to toothpaste include that it is antibacterial, and so helps keep your mouth healthy by removing bacteria when you spit the toothpaste out. Some manufacturers claim that coconut oil helps to whiten the teeth, whilst others believe it has “anti-toxin”, purifying or anti-posing properties. There is little evidence to support these theories.
However, more importantly, coconut oil is actually a natural source of glycerin, which does prevent the paste from drying out.
An ingredient that may be added to whitening toothpastes. It creates an optical illusion of whiter teeth by adding a blue tinge
Dimethicone may also be called polymethylsiloxane. It is a synthetic ingredient added to toothpaste due to its anti-foaming properties.
Fluoride is an anti-cavity agent added to toothpaste to prevent dental caries. It is the key active ingredient in many toothpastes. The FDA has approved the use of fluoride in the form of:
- Stannous fluoride
- Sodium fluoride
- Sodium monofluorophosphate.
Fluoride reduces the ability of the bacteria in the mouth to produce decay-causing acids. Fluoride also works by replacing the calcium and minerals lost in the demineralization/decalcification process. It binds with the tooth to form an even harder surface to reverse and prevent the decay process.
Glycerin and glycerol are the same ingredient. Glycerol is a humectant, added to toothpaste to prevent it drying out. It also sweetens the toothpaste, although this is not its main function.
Silica occurs in nature, but can also be manufactured. It is not silicone, and not its toxic namesake, crystalline silica. It’s a derivative of silicone dioxide.
What’s worrying about hydrated sicilia is that it can be contaminated by crystalline sicilia, so some manufacturers subject their hydrated silica to an x-ray process first before using it in pastes. For some people, using a material that must be x-rayed first is a little disconcerting.
Care should be taken to ensure that a toothpaste containing hydrated silica is not too abrasive, which could possibly lead to sensitivity and tooth wear.
If you are looking for a toothpaste without hydrated silica, consider Redmond Earthpaste.
NovaMin is a bioactive glass, and it delivers Calcium and Phosphate to form Hydroxyapatite to help remineralise the tooth surface.
Parabens are used as a preservative – to prevent growth of bacteria and mold. They therefore help the toothpaste to last for a long time and in good condition.
Parabens are used in so many products that it is now difficult to establish how it is affecting us. Studies have linked overexposure with breast cancer, whilst another showed that they could reduce the sperm count in mice.
The FDA does permit the use of parabens in cosmetic products, but says that it is constantly reviewing available data.
Paraben-free toothpaste brands
If a paste doesn’t explicitly state that it’s free from parabens, look for products that claim they are free from artificial preservatives. Some that are paraben-free include:
- Himalaya Herbals
- Sarakan Toothpaste
- Australia Tea Tree
Colgate also phased out its use of Parabens as of July 2016
A humectant that helps retain moisture or dissolves other ingredients.
Added to whitening toothpastes, these are the chemicals that will actually make a difference and change the base colour of the tooth. The maximum allowable concentration in over the counter products varies by country. Within Europe, this is 0.1%. In the US, bleaching is considered as cosmetic and so is not regulated by the FDA, with no obvious upper limit despite potential to cause damage in high doses.
Polyethylene (plastic microbeads)
Polyethylene in the form of plastic microbeads was previously added to toothpaste to improve the appearance of the toothpaste. In the US, the use of microbeads is banned in over-the-counter drugs and wash-off cosmetics, in accordance with the Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015.
Plastic microbeads in toothpastes can be detrimental to gum health, as well as proving harmful for the environment.
The US is one of 15 countries to have banned plastic microbeads in this way, alongside the UK and Canada. But beware of toothpastes purchased outside of the US, which could still have microplastics in them.
Potassium nitrate is a therapeutic ingredient which is added to prevent sensitivity. It works by preventing the nerve from passing on the pain message from the tooth to the brain. It is a nerve calming agent.
Propylene Glycol is a humectant, meaning that it helps keep toothpaste moist. It can also enhance flavours in toothpaste.
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)
SLS is a detergent that is used as a foaming agent. It is used in products like toothpaste so that the substance lathers, enabling us to spread it easier. It can also help remove debris from the mouth due to its foaming action.
SLS’s toxicology has been called into question, but some recent studies have proven it’s not a carcinogen. In actual fact the American Cancer Society does not include SLS on any list of known, probable or anticipated human carcinogens.
Whilst SLS cannot cause ulcers in the mouth, there is some limited evidence to associate it with greater pain and duration of ulcers if this is something you do suffer from.
I have written more about SLS in our post on the best SLS-Free toothpaste.
Sodium Benzoate is used as a preservative in toothpastes.
Sodium Benzoate does not occur naturally, but is made from a chemical reaction of benzoic acid.
Sodium Bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda, is added to toothpastes as an abrasive ingredient, to aid in the removal of plaque and superficial stains. It is a gentle stain remover which will do little damage to the enamel and dentin layers of the teeth.
There is some evidence that the addition of sodium bicarbonate to a toothpaste increases plaque removal compared to toothpastes without, and can also reduce gum bleeding more than using a toothpaste without.
Whilst baking soda can remove stains, making teeth appear whiter, it is not a whitening product, and will not lighten the overall colour of your teeth.
Sodium bicarbonate has a low RDA (relative dentin abrasivity) in itself, and is one of the gentlest abrasives to be found in toothpaste. However, toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate often market themselves as stain removing and may well contain other abrasives, which can cause damage over time.
Sodium hydroxide is used as a buffer in toothpaste, acting to balance the acidity.
Sodium hydroxide is also known as lye (used in soapmaking) or caustic soda, and has a number of uses in cleaning and making industrial products. But only minimum concentrations of it are used within toothpaste and food items, at levels which are safe, and in accordance with FDA recommendations.
In toothpaste, sodium hydroxide neutralises acids to help balance the pH of the toothpaste.
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP)
Prevents plaque mineralising into calculus, is added to prevent calculus (or tartar) buildup. It reduces the rate and the extent of calculus formation. Because it prevents build up of calculus, which can stain, it can also be considered as anti-staining.
Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate
This is a mild cleanser not related to SLS.
Sodium Saccharin is an artificial sweetener, added to toothpaste to improve the taste. It can also enhance other flavours such as mint or cinnamon.
Saccharin is approved by the FDA and is a good alternative to sugar because it does not contribute to the development of cavities. It’s commonly used because it also doesn’t contain any calories.
Early studies, completed in the 70s, linked saccharin to bladder cancer in rats, however this has been found to be untrue in humans, and saccharin has now been removed from any approved list of carcinogens in the US.
Also called Pentasodium triphosphate, this is a stain removal ingredient.
Unlike other ingredients, it does not remove stains in a physical way, by being abrasive. Sodium triphosphate removes staining from teeth in a chemical way, by removing proteins (which can be coloured) that are stuck to enamel on the teeth. It also prevents further proteins sticking to the surface.
This is an effective stain remover, without adding to the abrasiveness of a toothpaste. Because it does not need to be directly brushed into the surface like an abrasive ingredient, it can also be effective in hard to reach areas.
The primary role of sorbitol is as a humectant, preventing the loss of water from toothpaste and keeping it smooth. But sorbitol is a naturally-occurring sugar alcohol that is also used as a sweetener.
Sorbitol is an ingredient that is listed as Generally Recognised As Safe (GRAS) by the FDA. As a sweetener, sorbitol does not feed the bacteria in the mouth, and so does not increase the risk of dental decay and gum disease.
In some people, and at higher doses, sorbitol can cause flatulence, bloating and can aggravate irritable bowel syndrome.
If you’re looking to avoid sorbitol and other chemicals in your toothpaste, look for a paste that uses minimal, natural ingredients. Check for pastes that are ‘unsweetened’, ‘unflavoured,’ or without preservatives.
Sorbitol-free toothpaste brands
If you’re looking to avoid sorbitol and other chemicals in your toothpaste, look for a paste that uses minimal, natural ingredients. Check for pastes that are ‘unsweetened’, ‘unflavored,’ or without preservatives, such as:
- Kingfisher Baking Soda Toothpaste
- Sarakan Toothpaste
- Redmond Earthpaste
Strontium chloride is a therapeutic ingredient, use to reduce sensitivity by occluding dentinal tubules.
Titanium dioxide / CI 77891
Titanium dioxide is a thickener which is added to toothpaste to help the consistency, whilst also helping to colour the toothpaste because it is naturally white in colour.
Titanium dioxide has been approved by the FDA for use in food, drugs, and cosmetics.
Triclosan is an antibacterial ingredient, working to kill both bacteria and fungus too. It works by fighting the bacteria that cause dental decay and gum disease.
The FDA updated its rule as of 2018 to state that triclosan is one of the ingredients now “not generally recognized as safe and effective for use in nonprescription healthcare antiseptics”. Colgate Total was the only toothpaste commercially available containing Triclosan, and has now removed the ingredient. Any new toothpastes containing triclosan will have to undergo stringent testing as part of the FDA ruling.
Studies have shown that triclosan-containing toothpastes are particularly effective for patients with additional needs, and who are unable to brush well. In these cases, triclosan containing toothpastes are more effective than fluoride-containing toothpastes.
In 2014 the American Dental Association (ADA) released a statement announcing that the only paste to which they have afforded their seal of approval regarding triclosan is Colgate Total. The ADA rarely affords its seal of approval to any toothpaste manufacturers outside of Crest and Colgate.
Xanthan gum is a binding agent, preventing the ingredients of the toothpaste from separating in the tube.
Xanthan gum is generally made from vegetable matter and deemed safe by the FDA.
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol that is used as a sweetener. It helps to make the flavour of toothpaste more appealing.
As a sweetener, xylitol does not feed the bacteria in the mouth, and so does not increase the risk of dental decay and gum disease. Even better, it can reduce the risk of decay!
Xylitol is recognised as safe by the FDA, “provided the amount used is not greater than that required to produce its intended effect”
Xylitol helps protect the teeth and gums as it reduces the number of bacteria in saliva that can cause tooth decay. It is reported that using up to 20 grams of xylitol per day can significantly reduce the rate of cavity formation in both adults and children. Some studies have proven that xylitol is effective in preventing caries on the root surface of the tooth. Because of its effectiveness, xylitol is also added to sugar free chewing gums to help protect the teeth.
Xylitol can be sourced naturally as it is naturally occuring in some plants, fruits and vegetables.
It’s not suitable for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding as not enough is known about its side-effects. Potential side effects following overexposure include bloating and diarrhea. Xylitol is toxic for dogs so be careful which paste you are brushing your pet’s teeth with.
Xylitol is everywhere because evidence shows it is good to help prevent tooth decay. There are currently very few pastes on the market that don’t contain xylitol.
Zinc Citrate acts as a pH buffer. It is also an ingredient that can prevent the build up of tartar (calculus) by preventing plaque on the teeth from hardening into calculus.